Recently, the BBC released a documentary titled "Du Fu, China's Greatest Poet", which introduces in detail Du Fu and his poems.
On April 19, the website of the State Supervision Commission of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection released the article "Cultural Review丨BBC recommends Du Fu: His greatness and compassion are resonating in the West", saying that its broadcast has enabled people who are isolated at home to fight the epidemic and suffer from pandemic anxiety. In order to resonate, the beauty of Du Fu's poems is full of comforting power.
However, some Chinese people believe that the BBC broadcast a documentary about Du Fu at this time, using Du Fu’s compassionate style to imply the suffering of the Chinese people in the new crown pneumonia, and in this way induce people to associate the writer Fang. Fang and her "Wuhan Diary" is an act of malicious intent to discredit China.
This article is not to explore whether this documentary is suggesting Fang Fang and "Wuhan Diary". We do not draw conclusions here. However, we have noticed that many critics of Fang Fang have used a term called "chunqiu style", saying that Fang Fang, like some Western media, uses this writing method for selective reporting, so as to incite certain The purpose of these readers’ emotions.
So, what does "chunqiu brushwork" mean?
First of all, "Spring and Autumn" is a work of Confucius, as a chronicle of history, recording the history from 722 BC to 481 BC. Because of this work, the approximate period of history recorded in the book is called the "Spring and Autumn Period".
Now, "Chunqiu Brushwork" is a derogatory term used to criticize selective reporting on the Internet. But in ancient times, this was a more commendatory term. The ancients said: Confucius made the Spring and Autumn Period, but the rebellious officials were afraid. Confucius wrote this book not just to record history, but more importantly, he wanted to convey his thoughts and positions through this book.
When Confucius wrote "Spring and Autumn", he used very simple words, and sometimes a historical event was written in less than 10 words. Therefore, there have been many comments on "Chun Qiu" in later generations, such as Zuo Qiuming's "Zuo Zhuan", which is an extension and supplement to "Chun Qiu".
Confucius writes a brief history with his own intentions. He did not express his views directly, but implicitly expressed his position through some words. An important work done by "Zuo Zhuan" is to clearly explain these positions.
"Spring and Autumn" was recorded from Lu Yin in the first year. In the history of Lu Yin in the first year, Confucius used a total of 62 words:
At first glance, these are all concrete things, just like reporting the news, and you can’t see your position. But according to the interpretation of Zuo Zhuan, Confucius is actually expressing his position in most of the sentences.
"The first year, spring, Wang Zhengyue" means that this year is the first year of Lu Yin. But he did not say "ascended the throne" because Lu Hui died that year, but because the eldest son was young, the Chinese established the elder concubine Xigu as a temporary regent to act as the monarch. Siegu was Lu Yingong, but because he was only an acting monarch that year, Confucius only said "first year", not "ascended the throne."
"In March, Gong and Luyi's father are in alliance with Mi", it means that Lu Yin and Lu'an Gong (named Cao Ke, Zi Yifu), the king of the country, met in "Mi". The country of Lu is a country of viscounts, but Confucius did not call the monarch of Lu’s title (you should call him ``Zi Zi'' if you call him a title), because the title of the current monarch of the country of Lu has not yet been confirmed by Zhou Tianzi. The reason why he didn't call him "Cao Ke", but called him "Yifu" by the word "Yifu", is to respect him.
"Xia, May, Zheng Burke Duan Yuyan". Everyone has learned this story in Chinese textbooks. Gong Shu Duan is the younger brother of Zheng Zhuanggong, but he fights with his elder brother and does not look like a brother, so he is not called his brother, but directly called his name "Duan". Although this is a fight between brothers, it is actually like two monarchs at war, so the word "gram" is used. Calling Zheng Zhuanggong "Uncle Zheng" does not highlight his elder brother's identity, which is a mockery of his failure to teach a good brother.
"Autumn, July, the heavenly king makes Zai (xuǎn) come back to Hui Gong Zhongzi Zhi (fèng)". This matter is more complicated and needs to be explained clearly:
In July, Zhou Tianzi sent a Zai (zai is the official name, and Ao is the name of a person) to come to Lu to present funeral items. This item was used by Lu Hui who has passed away. Part of it was also given to Hui Gong's wife Zhongzi so that she could use it for funerals for Hui Gong.
According to the etiquette of Zhou Dynasty:
Seven months after the emperor died, the princes attended the funeral;
The princes can only be buried five months after they die, and the allies participate in the funeral;
The doctor can only be buried three months after his death, and colleagues with similar status will attend the funeral;
The burial was only one month after the death, and relatives attended the funeral.
Because the higher the status of the death, the more people come to mourn, and the wider the number of people involved in different places, so we should allow them enough time to come to the funeral. Gong Lu Hui was a prince and was buried five months after his death in accordance with the etiquette.
But Zhou Tianzi sent someone to give him funeral items, and it took far longer than five months. When Tianzi Zhou mourned the dead (Gong Lu Hui), he missed the funeral time; when he condoned the living (Gong Lu Hui’s wife Zhongzi), he missed the time for the mourning, which meant that they didn’t match both ends, completely contrary to the law of etiquette. .
Originally, the emperor Zhou gave funeral items to the dead princes, it was a routine operation, and it was not worth writing in history books. However, due to the delay of the emperor's actions this time, Confucius marked the month and wrote it in "Spring and Autumn", which is a vague criticism of Zhou emperor. But he couldn't directly criticize the emperor, so he wrote the name "Zai Yu" and let him take the place of the emperor, implying that it was because of Er's mistake that caused the delay.
In addition, "Spring and Autumn" also has another very distinctive feature: Confucius will use different words for the same behavior, depending on the nature.
For example, killing, Confucius would probably use three words: kill, kill, and punish.
In addition to the common "killing", "killing" refers to the murder of the following crimes, such as the killing of the elders by the juniors and the monarchs by the officials. "Zhu" refers to the death of the deceased being guilty.
For example, Zhou Yu, the son of Weiguo, killed his elder brother to win the position of the monarch of Weiguo, so the "Spring and Autumn Period" recorded it as "Wushen, Weizhou Yu killed his emperor", and used the word "killing"; Later, the Weiguo doctor Shi Jie coaxed Zhou Yu to Chen Guo and designed and killed Zhou Yu together with Chen Guojun. Although Zhou Yu was a monarch and was designed to be killed by a doctor, Zhou Yu's status as a monarch was improper, and killing him cannot be called "killing." Therefore, the record of "Spring and Autumn" is "September, Wei Ren killed Zhou Yupu".
例如，魏国之子周瑜杀害其兄长以赢得魏国君主的职位，因此《春秋战国》将其记录为“武神，魏州宇杀害其皇帝”，并用了这个词。 “杀人”；后来，魏国医生史杰哄骗周瑜与陈果，并与陈国钧设计并杀死了周瑜。尽管周瑜是君主，被设计为要被医生杀死，但周瑜作为君主的身份是不正当的，杀死他不能被称为“杀人”。因此，“春秋”的记录是“ 9月，魏仁杀死了周玉璞”。
Of course, Confucius hadn't used the word "Zhu" on the issue of Zhou Yu's death. Perhaps he considered that there were other problems at the top and bottom and felt that although Zhou Yu deserved to die, he was a monarch after all. But later Mencius didn't think so, he was more radical on similar issues.
When Mencius and Wei Hui met, they discussed the story of Zhou Wu's crusade against Shang Zhou. King Shang Zhou is the emperor, and King Zhou Wu is a prince. King Wei Hui believed that the princes' crusade against the emperor was an offense and murder of the emperor by his officials. Mencius replied:
"Wen Zhuo is a husband, but I have never heard of a king."
This means that King Zhou is a lone husband and a thief. To kill him is to kill the lone husband and a thief, not to kill the king. Here, he explicitly used the word "Zhu".
In the concept of Confucius, there is the principle of "taboo for the respected, taboo for the relatives, and taboo for the wise". "The Spring and Autumn" was actually compiled by Confucius by deleting materials from predecessors. When he selected the materials, he would deliberately avoid some things that would be unpleasant and unbearable for the "honor, relatives, and sages". Of course, in most cases, he will also record and criticize something euphemistically through the "Spring and Autumn Period".
For example, Confucius would skip certain important events and not write about them. For example, in October of the first year of Lu Yin, Lu Huigong, the first ruler, was buried, but he did not record it. According to the explanation of Zuo Zhuan, when Lu Hui died, Lu and Song were at war, and Hui Gong's son was still young, so the funeral was very scribbled. Now that the battle is over, it has to be buried again. However, Gong Lu Yin was temporarily acting as the monarch, so he was not qualified to preside over the funeral of the first king; Hui Gong’s son was still young and could not preside over the funeral. Therefore, Confucius directly did not record the reburial, because the name of the incident was not righteous and it was not in accordance with the etiquette, so he skipped it. This is similar to the current "selective reporting".
The Spring and Autumn Period is an era of "ritual collapse and music ruin". The traditional rituals of the Western Zhou Dynasty are no longer binding, and there are many things that are not respected by the ministers, sons and fathers, and the authority of the emperor. Therefore, Confucius used the Spring and Autumn Period when writing, the purpose of which was to maintain the rituals of the Zhou Dynasty, to maintain the authority of the Emperor Zhou, and to maintain the society of "junjun, ministers, father and son" in his mind.
It can be seen that Confucius was acting against the trend of the times, and it was destined that his ideas would not be accepted at that time. Although Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty banned hundreds of schools and exalted Confucianism under the initiative of Dong Zhongshu, Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty had forgotten one thing: his ancestor Liu Bang was a courtier of the Qin Dynasty, but he eventually overthrew the Qin Dynasty. It does not conform to Confucius' thinking (of course, he can also quote Mencius: Wen Zhu is a husband and a husband, but he has never heard of a king). It's just that after you have settled down, you need to use Confucius' ideas to maintain your rule.
Similarly, why don’t people like selective reporting now? Selective reports may have some facts, but they are not comprehensive facts. In this case, it is the same as the "Spring and Autumn Period". Its purpose is not to report and record, but to express one's own position and opinion, and to influence the position of more people.
Therefore, this raises another question: In the case of documentary articles, should the documentary be put in the first place, or should the opinions and positions be put in the first place? In other words, does an incomplete and incomplete documentary article qualify as a carrier of opinions and positions? And what kind of documentary articles can be considered comprehensive and complete?
For example, Confucius used extremely simple words to describe events. We can basically say that "Spring and Autumn" as a history book is extremely incomplete and extremely incomplete. Between the lines, it is full of standpoints rather than specific historical facts. It was not until the appearance of "Zuo Zhuan" that the specific incidents were filled in. Only after "Zuo Zhuan" comprehensively describes relevant historical events and Confucius' position, we will understand Confucius' thoughts and moral standards.